This research project aimed to determine the technologically feasible and applicable wastewater treatment systems which will be constructed to solve environmental problems caused by small communities in Turkey. Pilot-scale treatment of a small community's wastewater was performed over a period of more than 2 years in order to show applicability of these systems. The present study involves removal of organic matter and suspended solids in serially operated horizontal (HFCW) and vertical (VFCW) sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. The pilot-scale wetland was constructed downstream of anaerobic reactors at the campus of TUBITAK-MRC. Anaerobically pretreated wastewater was introduced into this hybrid two-stage sub-surface flow wetland system (TSCW). Wastewater was first introduced into the horizontal sub-surface flow system and then the vertical flow system before being discharged. Recirculation of the effluent was tested in the system. When the recirculation ratio was 100%, average removal efficiencies for TSCW were 91 ± 4% for COD, 83 ± 10% for BOD and 96 ± 3% for suspended solids with average effluent concentrations of 9 ± 5 mg/L COD, 6 ± 3 mg/L BOD and 1 mg/L for suspended solids. Comparing non-recirculation and recirculation periods, the lowest effluent concentrations were obtained with a 100% recirculation ratio. The effluent concentrations met the Turkish regulations for discharge limits of COD, BOD and TSS in each case. The study showed that a hybrid constructed wetland system with recirculation is a very effective method of obtaining very low effluent organic matter and suspended solids concentrations downstream of anaerobic pretreatment of domestic wastewaters in small communities.
Effect of recirculation on organic matter removal in a hybrid constructed wetland system
S. Ç. Ayaz, N. Findik, L. Akça, N. Erdoğan, C. Kınacı; Effect of recirculation on organic matter removal in a hybrid constructed wetland system. Water Sci Technol 1 May 2011; 63 (10): 2360–2366. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2011.635
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