Based on three case studies it is demonstrated that the application of mathematical models in biological wastewater treatment has not yet reached its full potential. Model structure uncertainty and correlation of uncertain parameter values make up the first case. The combination of biokinetic and hydraulic models relates to the second case. The evolution of a full scale plant over its life expectancy is the frame for the third case.

This paper was initially presented as a discussion starter and thus is raising questions rather than providing answers.

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