The collection system of a major city at the Persian Gulf was simulated for bulk water hydrogen sulfide and the release of sewer gas to the urban atmosphere. Geometry data on 870 km of sanitary sewer and data on dry weather flow entering all nodes in the catchment was exported from a Mike Urban database and imported to the sewer process model WATS. The process model then routed sewage and sewer gas through the system and simulated relevant physical, chemical and biological processes. In its non-calibrated state, the model was used as a planning tool to identify problem areas and to identify locations to install monitoring equipment and make preliminary choices for control strategies in terms of dosing of nitrate and iron salts. The monitoring equipment consisted of flow meters, level gauges, UV–Vis spectroscopes, and H2S gas sensors. Data from the first set of installed monitoring equipment were applied to calibrate and validate the model. It was illustrated how the calibrated model can be applied to assess compliance with quantitative formulated service levels and to design control strategies in terms of dosing of iron and nitrate salts.

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