The chemically enhanced primary treatment works in Hong Kong will be upgraded for biological nitrogen removal. This study proposed a novel approach to waive the upgrading by urine source-separation, onsite nitrification and discharge of nitrified urine into sewers to achieve in-sewer denitrification. Human urine was collected and a lab-scale experiment for full urine nitrification was conducted. The results showed that full nitrification was achieved with alkaline addition. Simulation of nitrified urine discharge into an 8-km pressure main in Hong Kong was conducted with a quasi-2D dynamic sewer model developed from a previously calibrated sewer biofilm model. It was assumed that 70% of the residents' urine was collected and fully nitrified on-site. The simulation results revealed that the proposed approach is effective in removal of nitrogen within the sewer, which decreases ammonia-N at the sewer outlet to a level required for secondary effluent discharge in Hong Kong.

This content is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.