In this study, a broad range of readily deployable metal removal technologies were tested on a US refinery's wastewater to determine vanadium, arsenic and selenium removal performance. The bench-scale treatability studies were designed and performed so that test conditions could be as uniform as possible given the different mechanisms of action and engineering applications of each technology. The experimental data show that both ferric precipitation and reactive filtration were able to remove As, Se and V more efficiently from the wastewater than other tested technologies. Additionally, granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) adsorption was also effective in both V and As removal. Although the thiol-SAMMS adsorbent was developed for mercury removal, it also demonstrated appreciable selenium removal. None of the tested membrane filtration technologies showed any significant metals removal. This was attributed to the dissolved form of the metals as well as the wastewater's fouling characteristics.

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