Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) is a cost-effective nitrogen removal process. Implementation of the CANON process relies on the cooperation of ammonium-oxidizing and Anammox bacteria, as well as the inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Strict limitations on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the reactor, and the addition of sufficient inorganic carbon in the influent, were adopted as the main operational strategies. The reactor was fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater composed mainly of NH4+-N, and operated for 106 days. Stable nitrogen removal rates (NRR) of around 1.4 kg N m−3 d−1 were obtained at ambient temperature. Morphological characteristics and analysis of bacterial community confirmed the formation of functional outer aerobic and inner anaerobic granular sludge, providing evidence of stable nitrogen removal.

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