Energy loss at manholes is of importance in the design of storm sewer networks and in flood-analysis. Some researchers have already investigated the energy loss at three-way manholes under surcharged conditions. However, formulation to calculate the energy loss at manholes, including all variables of structural elements of the pipes and of the manhole has not yet been accomplished. Therefore, more study to formulate the energy loss at three-way drop manholes is needed. In this study, the ratio of the diameter between inflow pipes and an outflow pipe, the ratio of flow rates between those pipes, water depth in a manhole and the drop gaps between those pipes are considered and the energy loss at three-way circular drop manholes is examined. Finally, a modified formula, more accurate than that in the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's 2001 Urban Drainage Design Manual is proposed. The proposed formula takes the influence of the ratio of the diameter between inflow pipes and outflow pipe and drop gaps between those pipes into consideration. The calculated energy loss coefficients in both straight-through and lateral pipes successfully reproduce the measured values.
Energy losses at three-way circular drop manholes under surcharged conditions
Shinji Arao, Tetsuya Kusuda, Katsumi Moriyama, Shunsuke Hiratsuka, Jyunsaku Asada, Nozomu Hirose; Energy losses at three-way circular drop manholes under surcharged conditions. Water Sci Technol 1 July 2012; 66 (1): 45–52. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2012.164
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