To enhance the efficiency of nitrate removal from synthetic groundwater, wheat rice stone (WRS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were employed as biofilm carriers for denitrification under different HRT (hydraulic retention time) and C/N ratios. Four different ratios of GAC to WRS (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) were investigated to determine the most appropriate ratio of GAC and WRS. The NO3-N, NO2-N, COD levels and pH of the effluent were also investigated under various HRT and C/N ratios. The results showed that the column at a GAC/WRS ratio of 1.0 performed best under a C/N ratio of 0.9 and an HRT of 8 h, with 99% nitrate being removed. In addition, little nitrite accumulation and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were observed in effluent under these conditions. These results demonstrated that, with no addition of phosphor in the influent, the nitrate removal efficiency can be enhanced by WRS because WRS can leach trace elements and phosphor to promote the growth of bacteria.

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