Brazilian regulations for nonpotable reuse are being established using World Health Organization guidelines, however, they should be developed based on local monitoring studies. This study intended to analyze enteroviruses, protozoa and viable Ascaris sp. eggs in raw (24) and treated (24) effluents from four Wastewater Treatment Plants of São Paulo State, Brazil. The protozoa were detected with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 in the treated effluents and by centrifugation/Immunomagnetic Separation in the raw influent samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were analyzed according to a modified USEPA method. Enteroviruses were quantified by using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells after adequate concentration procedures. All wastewater influents were positive for Giardia sp. whereas Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 58.3% of the samples. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 79.2 and 25.0% respectively, of the treated wastewater samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were detected in 50.0 and 12.5% of influent and treated wastewater samples. Enteroviruses were isolated in the 24 raw influent samples and in 46% of the treated samples. Taking into account the densities of Giardia sp. in some treated wastewaters intended to be used as reclaimed water, Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment studies should be conducted to establish pathogen quantitative criteria for a future Brazilian regulation for water reuse.
Pathogenic parasites and enteroviruses in wastewater: support for a regulation on water reuse
Elayse M. Hachich, Ana T. Galvani, Jose A. Padula, Nancy C. Stoppe, Suzi C. Garcia, Vilma M. S. Bonanno, Mikaela R. F. Barbosa, Maria Inês Z. Sato; Pathogenic parasites and enteroviruses in wastewater: support for a regulation on water reuse. Water Sci Technol 1 April 2013; 67 (7): 1512–1518. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2013.019
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