In order to study the performance and bacterial communities of an anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell (AFB-MFC) system, the 16S rDNA gene sequencing was applied, and high-strength synthetic wastewater was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The high-strength synthetic wastewater, in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were above 19,000, 2,516–3,871 and 927–1,427 mg/L, was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The removal efficiency of COD, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen reached 70–89, 98 and 98%, while the maximum voltage was 394 mV. The bacteria analysis revealed the presence of Alistipes putredinis, Carnobacterium sp., Victivallis vadensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Thauera sp., Parabacteroides merdae, Parvimonas micra, Parabacteroides sp., and Desulfomicrobium baculatum in the anode chamber. In addition, the Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed to have the capability of organic degradation and electricity generation, while the Thauera sp. has the capability of denitrification.

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