The application of wetland systems for the treatment of wineries wastewater started in the early 1990s in the USA followed a few years later by France, Italy, Germany and Spain. Various studies demonstrated the efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) as a low cost, low maintenance and energy-saving technology for the treatment of wineries wastewater. Several of these experiences have also shown lessons to be learnt, such as some limits in the tolerance of the horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow classic CWs to the strength of the wineries wastewater, especially in the first stage for the multistage systems. This paper is presenting an overview of all the reported experiences at worldwide level during the last 15 years, giving particular attention and provision of details to those systems that have proven to get reliable and constant performances in the long-term period and that have been designed and realized as optimized solutions for the application of CW technology to this particular kind of wastewater. The organic loading rates (OLRs) applied to the examined 13 CW systems ranged from about 30 up to about 5,000 gCOD/m2 d (COD: chemical oxygen demand), with the 80th percentile of the reported values being below 297 gCOD/m2 d and the median at 164 gCOD/m2 d; the highest OLR values have in all cases been measured during the peak season (vintage) and often have been linked to lower surface removal rates (SRRs) in comparison to the other periods of the year. With such OLRs the SRRs have ranged from a minimum of 15 up to 4,700 gCOD/m2 d, with the 80th percentile of the reported values being below 308 gCOD/m2 d and the median at 112 gCOD/m2 d.
Research Article|February 26 2015
Wineries wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands: a review
F. Masi, J. Rochereau, S. Troesch, I. Ruiz, M. Soto; Wineries wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands: a review. Water Sci Technol 1 April 2015; 71 (8): 1113–1127. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.061
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