Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.
Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area
Chart Chiemchaisri, Wilai Chiemchaisri, Sirilak Prasertkulsak, Nutta Sangnarin Hamjinda, Thammarat Kootatep, Takanori Itonaga, Kazuo Yamamoto; Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Water Sci Technol 1 December 2015; 72 (11): 1954–1961. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.420
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