The landfill leachate treated by sonication in presence of Fe2+ (US/Fe2+) and then by photo-Fenton achieved the highest total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency among the screened processes. The lower initial pH, dosage of Fe2+ and initial concentration of leachate were helpful in raising TOC removal efficiency of leachate by US/Fe2+. The optimal conditions for the US-photo-Fenton process were as follows: initial pH at 3.0, [H2O2]/[TOC0] at 2, [H2O2]/[Fe2+] at 5 and initial concentration of landfill leachate at 600 mg/L. The removal efficiency of TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) were 68.3, 79.6 and 58.2%, while the BOD5/COD rose from 0.20 to 0.43 at optimum condition. Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results, 36 of a total of 56 pollutants were completely degraded by US-photo-Fenton treatment.

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