To assess the capabilities of the different techniques in predicting Cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils with the addition of Zn, one in situ technique (diffusive gradients in thin films; DGT) was compared with soil solution concentration and four widely used single-step extraction methods (acetic acid, EDTA, sodium acetate and CaCl2). Wheat and maize were selected as tested species. The results demonstrated that single Cd-polluted soils inhibited the growth of wheat and maize significantly compared with control plants; the shoot and root biomasses of the plants both dropped significantly (P < 0.05). The addition of Zn exhibited a strong antagonism to the physiological toxicity induced by Cd. The Pearson correlation coefficient presented positive correlations (P < 0.01, R > 0.9) between Cd concentrations in two plants and Cd bioavailability indicated by each method in soils. Consequently, the results indicated that the DGT technique could be regarded as a good predictor of Cd bioavailability to plants, comparable to soil solution concentration and the four single-step extraction methods. Because the DGT technique can offer in situ data, it is expected to be widely used in more areas.
Comparison of in situ DGT measurement with ex situ methods for predicting cadmium bioavailability in soils with combined pollution to biotas
Peifang Wang, Cui Liu, Yu Yao, Chao Wang, Teng Wang, Ye Yuan, Jun Hou; Comparison of in situ DGT measurement with ex situ methods for predicting cadmium bioavailability in soils with combined pollution to biotas. Water Sci Technol 12 May 2017; 75 (9): 2171–2178. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2017.093
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