In this study, activated carbon (AC) was prepared from walnut shell using chemical activation. The surface chemistry of the prepared AC was modified by introducing or blocking certain functional groups, and the role of the different functional groups involved in the copper uptake was investigated. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of the produced carbons are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Boehm titration method and N2/77 K adsorption isotherm analysis. The equilibrium and the kinetics of copper adsorption onto AC were studied. The results demonstrated that the functional groups on AC played an important role in copper uptake. Among various surface functional groups, the oxygen-containing group was found to play a critical role in the copper uptake, and oxidation is the most effective way to improve Cu (II) adsorption onto AC. Ion-exchange was identified to be the dominant mechanism in the copper uptake by AC. Some other types of interactions, like complexation, were also proven to be involved in the adsorption process, while physical force was found to play a small role in the copper uptake. The regeneration of copper-loaded AC and the recovery of copper were also studied to evaluate the reusability of the oxidized AC.

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