Abstract

Advanced oxidation of the aqueous Triton™ X-45 (TX-45), iopamidol (IOPA), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and bisphenol A (BPA) solutions via activation of persulfate (PS) with zero-valent aluminum (ZVA) was investigated. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the PS/ZVA process in terms of target micropollutants (MPs) and toxicity abatements in raw surface water (RSW) and distilled water (DW). TX-45, CIP and BPA were completely degraded after 90-minute, 120-minute and 40-minute treatment, respectively, with PS/ZVA in DW, whereas 95% IOPA removal was achieved after 120-minute (MPs = 2 mg/L; ZVA = 1 g/L; PS = 0.25 mM for CIP and BPA; PS = 0.50 mM for TX-45 and IOPA; pH = 3). TX-45 (59%), IOPA (29%), CIP (73%) and BPA (46%) removal efficiencies decreased after 120-minute PS/ZVA treatment in RSW. In DW, Vibrio fischeri toxicities of original (untreated) MPs were found as: CIP (51%) > BPA (40%) > TX-45 (15%) > IOPA (1%), and as BPA (100%) > CIP (66%) > IOPA (62%) > TX-45 (35%) in RSW. Acute toxicities of MPs and their degradation products fluctuated during PS/ZVA treatment both in DW and RSW samples and resulted in different relative inhibition values after 120-minute. The original and PS/ZVA-treated TX-45, IOPA and BPA in DW exhibited neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects, whereas CIP oxidation ended up in degradation products with genotoxic effects.

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