Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment by conventional neutralization, chemical precipitation and coagulation process removes most suspended solids and heavy metals, and provides an effluent rich in calcium, alkalinity and chloride, which obstructs its reclamation and reuse but is in favor of phosphorus (P) precipitation. The goals of this study were to investigate feasibility of reusing FGD effluent as a calcium source for P removal from P-rich wastewater. Results revealed that increasing the volumetric ratio between FGD effluent and P-rich wastewater achieved higher pH value and Ca/P ratio, and thus enhanced P removal efficiency to 94.3% at the ratio of 40%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analysis of harvested precipitates showed that increasing pH from 8 to 10 induced the conversion of hydroxyapatite to tri-calcium phosphate, and then to whitlockite. This study demonstrated that for reusing FGD effluent for P removal was highly feasible, both technically and economically. This process not only saves the cost of precipitants for P removal, but also provides an economical alternative for current zero liquid discharge technology for FGD wastewater, which requires high energy consumption and capital costs.

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