The use of a commercial, nano-scale zero-valent aluminum (ZVA) powder was explored for the treatment of aqueous Bisphenol A (BPA). The study focused on the (i) activation of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and persulfate (PS) oxidants with ZVA to accelerate BPA degradation, (ii) comparison of the treatment performance in pure and real surface water (SW) samples, (iii) effects on toxicity and (iv) reuse potential of ZVA nanoparticles after ZVA/HP and ZVA/PS treatments. In pure water, ZVA coupled with HP or PS provided an effective means of BPA treatment particularly when PS was employed as the oxidant. On the other hand, in BPA-spiked SW, the ZVA/HP treatment combination outperformed ZVA/PS oxidation in terms of BPA removal, whereas ZVA/PS oxidation was superior in terms of organic carbon removal. According to the bioassays conducted in pure and real SW samples with the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri and the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the toxicity response of BPA and its oxidation products was sensitive to the test organism and water matrix. The inhibitory effect of the reaction solution increased at the early stages of ZVA/PS treatment. The reuse potential of the ZVA/HP treatment system was higher than that of the ZVA/PS treatment system.