The marine biomass Ulva compressa L. (ECL) was used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated aqueous solutions. The operating variables were optimized: pH ∼ 2, initial concentration of 25 mg/L, solid/liquid ratio of 6 g/L and a temperature of 50 °C, leading to an uptake elimination of 96%. A full factorial experimental design technique enabled us to obtain a mathematical model describing the Cr(VI) biosorption and to study the main effects and interactions among operational parameters. The equilibrium isotherm was analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) models; it has been found that the adsorption process follows well the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that the pseudo-second order model describes suitably the experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters indicated an endothermic heat and a spontaneity of the Cr(VI) biosorption onto ECL.