There is an increasing need to explore effective and clean approaches for hazardous contamination removal from wastewaters. In this work, a novel bead adsorbent, polyvinyl alcohol–graphene oxide (PVA-GO) macroporous hydrogel bead was prepared as filter media for p-nitrophenol (PNP), dye methylene blue (MB), and heavy metal U(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacities of PNP, MB, and U(VI) on this bead. From batch experiments, the maximum adsorption capacities of PNP, MB, and U(VI) reached 347.87, 422.90, and 327.55 mg/g. From the fixed-bed column experiments, the adsorption capacities of PNP, MB, and U(VI) decreased with initial concentration increasing from 100 to 400 mg/L. The adsorption capacities of PNP, MB, and U(VI) decreased with increasing flow rate. Also, the maximum adsorption capacity of PNP decreased as pH increased from 3 to 9, while MB and U(VI) presented opposite tendencies. Furthermore, the bed depth service Time (BDST) model showed good linear relationships for the three ions' adsorption processes in this fixed-bed column, which indicated that the BDST model effectively evaluated and optimized the adsorption process of PVA-GO macroporous hydrogel bead in fixed-bed columns for hazardous contaminant removal from wastewaters.