Abstract

This review is based on the adsorption characteristics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) for removal of heavy metals from aqueous media. Different parameters like pH, temperature of the medium, sorghum concentration, sorghum particle size, contact time, stirring speed and heavy metal concentration control the adsorption efficiency of sorghum biomass for heavy metal ions. Sorghum biomass showed maximum efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions in the pH range of 5 to 6. It is an agricultural waste and is regarded as the cheapest biosorbent, having high adsorption capacity for heavy metals as compared to other reported adsorbents, for the treatment of heavy metal polluted wastewater. Adsorption of heavy metal ions onto sorghum biomass follows pseudo second order kinetics. Best fitted adsorption isotherm models for removal of heavy metal ions on sorghum biomass are Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Thermodynamic aspects of heavy metal ions adsorption onto sorghum biomass have also been elaborated in this review article. How adsorption efficiency of sorghum biomass can be improved by different physical and chemical treatments in future has also been elaborated. This review article will be highly useful for researchers working in the field of water treatment via biosorption processing. The quantitative demonstrated efficiency of sorghum biomass for various heavy metal ions has also been highlighted in different sections of this review article.

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