Filamentous bacteria in addition to wastewater treatment are responsible for the shape of flocs and sedimentation properties of activated sludge. Their dynamics in activated sludge influences the performance of the whole sewage treatment plant. Therefore the composition of activated sludge biocenosis and its dynamics in the nitrification process were investigated. Four laboratory-scale activated sludge membrane bioreactors fed with wastewater highly concentrated with ammonium (synthetic wastewater imitating landfill leachate) were operated to obtain a high rate of nitrification. The sludge age was 8, 12, 24 and 32 days. An additional fifth reactor was conventionally ammonium loaded at 12-day sludge age and served as the reference. A shift in filamentous bacteria population was observed in all operated reactors. There was no influence of sludge age on composition or abundance of filamentous biocenosis. In high ammonium loaded activated sludge Nostocoida limicola, Haliscomenobacter hydrossis and also Type 021N were the most abundant filamentous bacteria. In the reference reactor Type 021N and Sphaerotilus natans dominated the activated sludge.