To better understand the microbial oil removal enhancement process by a magnetic field, the effect of a static magnetic field (SMF) on the microscopic characteristics of highly efficient biodegradation oil-removing bacteria was studied. The Acinetobacter sp. B11 strain with a 53.6% oil removal rate was selected as the reference bacteria. The changes in the microscopic characteristics of Acinetobacter sp. B11 such as the cell surface morphology, cell permeability and cell activity of the bacteria were investigated. The results showed that low-intensity magnetic fields (15–35 mT) improved the ability of Acinetobacter sp. B11 to remove oil by 11.9% at 25 mT compared with that of bacteria with no magnetic field. Without destroying the cell membrane, the low-intensity magnetic fields increased the cell membrane permeability and improved the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which effectively enhanced the oil degradation performance of the bacteria.