Biochar obtained through the pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) at 550 °C with a heating rate of 40 °C/min was characterized and its ability to adsorb the dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dyes on adsorption behavior were investigated. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Equilibrium data were well fitted for D-R isotherm in case of MB and Langmuir isotherm in case of RB dyes. The kinetics of dye adsorption on PGSC biochar was well described by applying pseudo-second-order rate equations. The surface of adsorbent before and after the removal of dyes was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The study suggested that PGSC biochar could be used as a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes.