Abstract

Adsorption behavior of mentha (mint) plant biochar (MPB) in removal of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution was analyzed as a function of different pH (4.0–10.0), initial dye concentration (20–100 mg/L), contact time (0–45 min) and dose of adsorbent (0.05–0.3 g/100 mL). The zeta potential of the MPB particles was found to be −37.9 mV, indicating a negatively charged sorption surface of MPB particles. MPB was found to be more effective in removal of MG dye at pH 6.0 due to combined action of physico-chemisorption and a reductive electron transfer reaction. Results on the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis of the N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm of MPB as adsorbent showed sigmoidal shape similar to the type IV isotherm and mesoporous nature. The cyclic voltammetric analysis of MG dye showed a reversible, coupled redox reaction at the interface of dye molecules and MPB particles. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qmax) of MPB was found to be 322.58 mg g−1. The separation factor (RL) value was between 0 and 1, indicating a favourable adsorption of MG dye onto MPB. The results fitted well to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Further results from desorption experiments showed recovery of MG dye by about 50% in the presence of 1 N HCl.

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