The application of carbonized materials (CMs) from solid wastes for the control of hydrophobic organic contaminants is a promising way to treat wastes. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of CMs prepared from industry (fly ash and sewage sludge), plant (rice straw and bamboo fragments), and livestock (chicken manure) were analyzed, their adsorption capacities for nonylphenol were studied, and the relationship between the adsorption capacity and the physicochemical properties of different types of CMs was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of CMs prepared from plant solid wastes (rice straw and bamboo fragments) far exceeded those of the industrial and livestock solid wastes. The parameter Kf obtained by the Freundlich model showed a significant and positive correlation with carbon content (C%), carboxyl content, specific surface area (SSA), and pore volume, and a negative correlation with ash content (ash%). Compared with CMs produced by the other two types of solid wastes, CMs from the plant solid wastes had the characteristics of a large SSA, rich pore structure (especially mesoporous) and high aromaticity (high C%), which were the main reasons for their superior adsorption capacity. The results could provide a scientific basis for the utilization of solid wastes.