A model was developed for a water resources recovery facility (WRRF) activated sludge process (ASP) in Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) configuration. Amplification of air requirements and its associated energy consumptions were observed as a result of concurrent circadian variations in ASP influent flow and carbonaceous/nitrogenous constituent concentrations. The indirect carbon emissions associated with the ASP aeration were further amplified due to the simultaneous variations in carbon emissions intensity (kgCO2,eq(kWh)−1) and electricity consumption (kWh). The ratio of peak to minimum increased to 3.4 (for flow), 4.2 (for air flow and energy consumption), and 5.2 (for indirect CO2,eq emission), which is indicative of strong amplification. Similarly, the energy costs for ASP aeration were further increased due to the concurrency of peak energy consumptions and power demands with time of use peak electricity rates. A comparison between the results of the equilibrium model and observed data from the benchmark WRRF demonstrated under- and over-aeration attributed to the circadian variation in air requirements and limitations associated with the aeration system specification and design.

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