High color concentrations in inflows at reclaimed water treatment plants are typically considered as emergency situations, which must be solved using an appropriate decolorizing process. Using the decoloration mechanism of a modified dicyandiamide-formaldehyde polymer (DFP), a urea-formaldehyde polymer and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer (MFP) were prepared with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate as the modifiers. An orthogonal experiment indicated that a modified urea-formaldehyde polymer had no effect on decolorization; however, the MFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 16 (MMFP-C16), the DFP modified by ammonium chloride in number 9 (MDFP-C9) and modified by ammonium sulfate in number 6 (MDFP-S6) were successful. The removal rates were above 50% in acidic and reactive dye reclaimed water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to microscopically analyze the differences in decolorization effect among the polymers. The effect of pH on decolorization was analyzed. Compared to the MDFP-C9 and MDFP-S6, the MMFP-C16 was not sensitive to changes in conditions. The pilot plant test proved that the three optimal decolorizers also had a good decolorizing effect, and MMFP-C16 was better both at decolorizing and floc sedimentation. Thus, the latter can be considered as an efficient modified decolorizer for rapid treatment of high color reclaimed water.