The process of cultivation of microalgae on purified and clarified wastewater of Kuryanovo wastewater treatment plants (KWWTP) was studied. The studies were conducted on monoculture (Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sorokiniana) and on polyculture, the composition of which was formed from microalgae present in the wastewater. The authors created and investigated the columnar photobioreactor (PBR), which acted as a pilot project on the purified and clarified water of KWWTP and allowed the removal of total nitrogen and phosphorus phosphates with an efficiency of up to 90%. The formation of a stable biocenosis from 22 species of algae (with 3–4 dominant species) and 31 species of zooplankton organisms belonging to six systematic subdivisions was recorded. The optimal retention time of the microalgae polyculture for the most effective wastewater treatment has been determined. The conducted studies have shown that the depth of decomposition of ashless matter and the ultimate biogas potential of untreated microalgae biomass is 15% lower than the corresponding values obtained with digestion of activated sludge, which necessitates studies in the field of pretreatment of algal biomass. The paper shows: connections between chlorophyll-a content, algal biomass and fluorescence index F0 and between biomass increment and Fv/Fm value.