Our experimental work focused on the applicability of a quite novel process for wastewater treatment, i.e. a microwave (MW) irradiation-enhanced Fenton-like method. The aim of our research was to detect and evaluate the efficiency of this oxidation process, during the treatment of meat industry wastewater containing a high concentration of organic material. The efficiency was defined by the measurement of the change in COD (chemical oxygen demand, with an initial COD value of 1,568 mg L−1), and with the determination of dielectric parameters during the process. It can be summarized that MW irradiation could assist in a Fenton-like oxidation process to achieve higher organic matter removal. Furthermore, our experimental results and statistical analysis show that there can be found a correlation between the effects of applied MW energy and the dosage of H2O2/FeSO4. If the intensity of MW irradiation and the amount of FeSO4 were set higher, the decrease of COD and the increase of tanδ (the dielectric loss tangent) were definitely more significant. With the application of 60 kJ MWE and a 0.14 mgFe2+/mgCOD dosage, the COD removal efficiency was more than 40%, and the increment of tanδ was nearly threefold. Considering the effects of MW-specific process parameters, it can be concluded that the power intensity of MW–oxidation treatment has a significant effect on COD decrease, if the irradiated MW energy was set at lower (30–45 kJ) levels.