Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is considered as a biological resistant pollutant. The CoFe2O4/activated carbon@chitosan (CoFe2O4/AC@Ch) prepared as a new magnetic nanobiocomposite and used for adsorption of CIP. CoFe2O4/AC@Ch was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The pHZPC value of the nanobiocomposite was estimated to be 6.4 by solid addition method. The prepared magnetic nanobiocomposites can be separated easily from water by an external magnet and reused. The effect of CIP concentration (10–30 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (12–100 mg/L), contact time (5–30 min) and pH (3–11) as independent variables on ciprofloxacin removal efficiency was evaluated. Optimum conditions were obtained in CIP concentration: 10 mg/L, adsorbent dosage: 100 mg/L, contact time: 15 min and pH: 5. In this condition, maximum CIP removal was obtained as 93.5%. The kinetic and isotherm equations showed that the process of adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm. The results indicate that the prepared magnetic nanobiocomposite can be used as good adsorbent for the removal of CIP from aqueous solution and can be also recycled.