The biofilm culturing device fixed on the slides was vertically placed in the commonly called small Li Lake of Jiangnan University. The adsorption experiment of Cu2+ was carried out by mature biofilm. Besides, scanning electron microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy-energy spectrum (SEM-EDX) were used to analysis the effect of Cu2+ on the morphological structure of biofilm. The result indicated that when the initial concentration of Cu2+ was 5 mg·L−1, the absorption capacity of Cu2+ by unit mass biofilm is the maximum. More extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were released by biofilm due to the stimulation of Cu2+. EPS was beneficial to the adsorption of Cu2+ by biofilm. After the adsorption of Cu2+, the bacterial diversity index decreased, while there were no significant differences in microbial communities on biofilm. Moreover, the main groups combining Cu2+ were the hydroxyl groups and amide groups in S-EPS and B-EPS. Ion exchange is a mechanism of the adsorption of Cu2+ by EPS.