In this work, a microporous municipal sewage sludge-derived hydrochar (MSSH) with relatively high surface area and abundant surface organic functional groups was produced through hydrothermal carbonization. Based on the adsorption results over a wide range of conditions, the prepared MSSH was suggested as a promising adsorbent for CV because of its high and efficient adsorption capability. The experimental data were fitted to several kinetic models. Based on calculated respective parameters such as rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and correlation coefficients, the pseudo second-order model proved the best in describing the adsorption behavior of MSSH. Through kinetics, thermodynamic modeling studies and material characterization, a plausible adsorption process was discussed under the conditions used in this study. It can be confirmed that the adsorption of CV onto MSSH is via both physical interactions (electrostatic interaction and Van der Waals' force) and chemical interactions (formation of H-bonding).