Sulfur causes many adverse effects in wastewater treatment and sewer collection systems, such as corrosion, odours, increased oxygen demand, and precipitate formation. Several of these are often controlled by chemical addition, which will impact the subsequent wastewater treatment processes. Furthermore, the iron reactions, resulting from coagulant addition for chemical P removal, interact with the sulfur cycle, particularly in the digester with precipitate formation and phosphorus release. Despite its importance, there is no integrated sulfur and iron model for whole plant process optimization/design that could be readily used in practice. After a detailed literature review of chemical and biokinetic sulfur and iron reactions, a plant-wide model is upgraded with relevant reactions to predict the sulfur cycle and iron cycle in sewer collection systems, wastewater and sludge treatment. The developed model is applied on different case studies.

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