This work evaluates the reduction of scum accumulation on the top surface of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors by the addition of hydrolytic enzymes in their feed. For over 1 year, two UASB reactors of 1.4 L were maintained at 30 °C and continuously fed with synthetic domestic wastewater (containing 150 mg/L of soybean oil) under a hydraulic retention time of 10 h. The Control reactor was only fed with synthetic wastewater. Beginning at the 226th day of operation, low-cost hydrolytic enzymes (obtained by solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus terreus, a fungus isolated from a primary sewage sludge) were added into the feed of the other reactor (Test) for a lipase activity of 24 U/L, considerably reducing the formation of scum. In the Test reactor, the scum showed oil and grease (O&G) concentration between 0.8 and 1.3 g/L and an accumulation rate of 20 to 27 mg O&G/d. In the Control reactor, the scum had values twice as high (1.5–2.5 g/L and 34–51 mg O&G/d, respectively) and there were more operational problems. During the entire period of operation, both reactors presented high chemical oxygen demand removal (>80%), with no loss of effluent quality due to the addition of the enzymes.

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