Abstract

The research developed a combined system in batch flow and in pilot scale for the treatment and reuse of urban effluents. The system was fed raw effluent from a university campus in Brazil and composed of four anaerobic reactors, three constructed wetlands (CWs) and an ozonation unit. The three sequential hybrid constructed wetlands were composed of a floating treatment wetland, an aerobic-anoxic baffled constructed wetland (CW) and a saturated vertifcal flow CW. Later, during the last trimester, weekly samples of the treated effluent were ozonated by bubbling with an application rate of 240 mg.h-1 O3. The system presented high removal rates efficiencies in terms of carbonaceous organic matter (78.9%), nitrogen (91.0%), color (96.7%) and turbidity (99.1%). In addition, it worked well for disinfection and acute ecotoxicity, but P was only efficiently (75%) removed in the first 8 months, with removing efficiency declining after this period. Ozonation provided significant color removal and an increased pH. The combination of floating, alternated upflow and downflow and saturated vertical flows improved the treatment of wastewater. This was due to the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic zones, as well as the filter substrate, through an integrated system with simple construction and operation and increased lifespan.

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