Increases in the global population and urbanization have made people's demand for rational development and utilization of urban underground space (UUS) increasingly urgent. The underground sewage treatment plant (USTP) plays an important role in sustainable urbanization as part of the UUS. Nevertheless, problems such as high operating costs and large safety hazards still restrict the development of the USTP. In this paper we intend to summarize the current application of the USTP, reflecting the specific and novel aspects of the USTP, and also some technology drawbacks and main process update problems, providing some development suggestions. To do this, essential information on USTPs globally is simply and clearly revealed under due diligence, providing a development process for the USTP and making a prediction for its future development. Furthermore, combined with the main treatment process and ecological value analysis, we give a valid view of the good application prospects of the USTP, which provides a reference for the future construction of USTPs.