In order to reduce the environmental impact of benzoic acid (BA), molecular imprinted polymers based on attapulgite were facilely prepared by molecular imprinted technique. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The adsorption performance, regeneration stability, and competitive selectivity of BA by benzoic acid-surface molecular imprinted polymers (BA-MIP) were systematically investigated by experiments. For this material, it has a high adsorption capacity of 41 mg/g and an equilibrium adsorption time of about 150 min. Compared with non-imprinted polymers, BA-MIP has a higher adsorption capacity for BA, and the dynamic adsorption behavior of BA by both of them conforms to the quasi-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation was fitted the isothermal adsorption experiment. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the adsorption process is an exothermic reaction. The adsorption capacity of BA first increases and then decreases with an increase in pH, and the maximum adsorption capacity is reached at pH = 5. BA-MIP also has excellent selective adsorption capacity and regeneration stability for BA.