The petrochemical wastewater includes many toxic organic compounds, which are refractory substances. It is difficult for the wastewater to meet discharge standards after biological treatment, therefore, the further effective treatment of post-biochemical petrochemical wastewater has become an urgent problem to be solved. This study used iron tartaric acid chelate (ITC) catalytic ozonation to treat the petrochemical wastewater. Various key factors were investigated, such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), catalyst dosage, ozone concentration, initial pH values and oxidation efficiency. The kinetics of catalytic ozonation were established. The results indicate that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate reached a maximum of 58.5%, when the Fe2+ dosage is 0.25 mmol L−1, the initial pH value is neutral, the liquid phase ozone concentration is about 1.95 mg L−1, and HRT is equal to 180 min. In addition, when HRT is equal to 90 min, the B/C ratio of wastewater increases to 0.31, the catalytic ozone reaches maximum oxidation efficiency, and the most economical HRT was 90 min. Finally, the kinetics of ITC catalytic ozonation catalyzed with ITC is consistent with the pseudo-first-order kinetic reaction, and its rate constant is 0.00484 min−1.