A literature screening on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling in water treatment applications showed a vast range of validation ranging from no validation at all, over residence time distribution (RTD) and tracer testing, to velocity field, species concentration and, finally, turbulence properties measurements. The validation level also differs depending on process scale (laboratory, pilot, full) and type of system (rheology, single phase vs. multiphase). Given the fact that CFD is in more widespread use, a discussion on the extent and need of validation needs to be initiated. This paper serves as a discussion starter on the topic.

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