In this study, manganese dioxide was evenly distributed on the surface of activated carbon (AC), and the porous structure of AC and the surface functional groups of manganese dioxide were used to adsorb the heavy metal ion Pb(II). The advantages of microwave heating are fast heating and high selectivity. The mole ratio control of the AC and MnO2 in 1:0.1, microwave heating to 800 °C, heat preservation for 30 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of the MnO2-AC prepared by this method on Pb(II) can reach 664 mg/L at pH = 6. It can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) that manganese dioxide particles are dispersed evenly on the surface and pore diameter of AC, and there is almost no agglomeration. The specific surface area was 752.8 m2/g, and the micropore area was 483.9 m2/g. The adsorption mechanism was explored through adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is speculated that the adsorption mechanism includes electrostatic interaction and specific adsorption, indicating that lead ions enter into the void of manganese dioxide and form spherical complexes. The results showed that the adsorption behavior of Pb(II) by MnO2-AC was consistent with the Langmuir adsorption model, the quasi-second-order kinetic model, and the particle internal diffusion model.