Activated mineral adsorbent (AMA) was prepared via double salts (Na2SO4 and CaCO3) heat treatment activation of solid-state potassium feldspar. Adsorption performance of AMA for Cd(II) and Pb(II) was investigated by batch mode and factors affecting adsorption including pH value, initial concentration of adsorbate, contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature on adsorption performance for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption process was pH dependent, endothermic and spontaneous. When the adsorption process of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on AMA reached equilibrium, the maximum saturated adsorption capacities were 263.16 and 303.03 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively, showing higher adsorption removal efficiency. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo second kinetic equation could well fit the adsorption process of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by AMA. Besides, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also performed to further reveal the adsorption mechanism. The results indicated that ion exchange, precipitation and adsorption played an important role in adsorption process. From the investigation, it was concluded that AMA was an excellent adsorbent with the advantages of environment-friendly, inexpensive, facile preparation and higher adsorption capacity of toxic Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions.