Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of chloride ions (Cl) on the organic contaminants decolorization by Fe0-activated persulfate process (PS/Fe0), as well as the generation of transformation products. Orange II (OII) was chosen as the target pollution. The results indicated that Cl influenced the OII decolorization by PS/Fe0 system, resulting in the generation of chlorine-containing by-products. OII containing Cl solution can be efficiently decolorized by PS/Fe0 process, and the decolorization efficiencies changed depending on Cl concentration due to the reaction between Cl and sulfate radicals (SO4–•). The operating cost to 94% color and 64% COD remove of the OII dye was estimated at 0.73 USD/m3. The chlorine-containing by-products, such as chlorobenzene, 3,5-Dichloro-benzene-1,2-diol, and 2,3-dichloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-Naphthoquinone were generated during the reaction. The results further indicated that increasing both PS concentration and temperature enhanced OII decolorization and reduced the generation of chlorine-containing intermediates. The addition of ultrasound can further decrease the generation of chlorine-containing intermediates under high-temperature conditions. The proposed pathways of OII containing Cl also indicated that SO4–• dominated the OII degradation, while the presence of Cl led to the generation of chlorine-containing intermediates.

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