Abstract

We analyzed the effects of pyrolysis temperature and duration on the physiochemical properties and Cd(II) adsorption capacity of spent tea leaves (STL) biochar. The STL biochar was produced by pyrolysis at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C for 1 and 2 h. The pyrolysis temperature was positively correlated to the ash content, pH, electrical conductivity, specific surface area (SBET), pore volume (PV) and C content, and negatively with the total yield, O, H and N content, and the O/C and H/C atomic ratios. Furthermore, the surface porosity of STL biochar increased, the density of oxygen-containing functional groups decreased, and the formation of aromatic structures was enhanced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. The adsorption of Cd(II) onto STL biochar fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherms model. The STL biochar produced at 600 °C for 2 h showed the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacity of 97.415 mg/g. In addition, Cd(II) adsorption was mainly physical and occurred in monolayers. Thus, STL biochar is a suitable low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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