This paper offers a feasible solution for the treatment of membrane concentrate produced from the textile industry, using the Fenton, Advanced Fenton (AF), ozonation and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and combination of these processes. The study investigated the optimum oxidant and catalyst concentrations, optimum operational conditions and comparison of these processes. The potential formation of chlorinated organic compounds after oxidation of membrane concentrate was also investigated by analyzing total organic halogen (TOX) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs). Also, toxicity analysis was performed with Vibrio fischeri photobacteria to identify the production possibility of oxidation intermediates that are more toxic and difficult to treat than the targeted contaminants. Maximum removal efficiencies in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color were 18.8% and 60.7% respectively using HC alone at a cavitation number (CN) of 0.1. Maximum COD, total organic carbon (TOC), and color removal efficiency at molar concentrations of 175 mM H2O2 and 35 mM Fe2+ and pH 3 after 30 min was 87.1, 80.8 and 99%. Combined HC with Fenton showed the highest removal efficiency in terms of COD, TOC, and color. It was also stated that the use of high oxidant concentrations masks the synergistic effect of HC on Fenton processes due to the scavenging effect.