Several feasibility studies requiring ecological and engineering investigations have been carried out recently in England and Wales. The organisation and outcome of investigations for three such studies are described. The ecological and engineering investigations for the Dee Estuary were generally carried out separately whilst those for the Wash were well integrated. In both studies the proposed schemes for development were generally agreed to be those most acceptable on environmental grounds, though many ecologists would prefer that there was no development in either place. Recent investigations for the Severn Estuary have involved ecologists at all levels of planning, study and decision-making though there was less integration than for the Wash studies. Existing ecological models were used in the investigations and future fully integrated studies were planned jointly between engineers and ecologists. The methods used in the Severn have been taken a step further in a fully integrated study in the Far East where engineering and ecological models are being used together to provide a tool for urban planning, management of pollution control and the marine environment.

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