Some calculations and experimental work on the turbulence in aeration tanks using different aeration systems and its effect on floc cohesion are presented. Vigorous aeration causes floc dispersion and it can be quantified in standard test conditions using velocity gradient calculations and comparing these with the numbers of particles in the supernatant liquor after 30 minutes settlement of the sludge. Tests on final settlement tanks indicated that the density current is of prime importance and that the harmful effects of this can be overcome by installing deep inlets and arranging to have the outlet weir inset and as near to the inlet as possible. Mixing calculations also indicated that circular tanks are more efficient than rectangular and that if the latter were used transverse flow is better than longitudinal flow. A test on a full scale plant indicated that flocculation occurred in the density current zone of the final tank so that the number of particles in the supernatant decreased to an extent similar to that produced by mild agitation.

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