In England and Wales the placing of effluent discharge consents within a statistical framework has led to the development of a new hybrid type of river quality model. Such catchment scale consent models have a stochastic component for the generation of model inputs and a deterministic component to route them through the river system. This paper reviews and compares the existing approaches for consent modelling used by various Water Authorities. A number of possible future developments are suggested including the potential need for a national approach to the review and setting of long term consents.

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