Mathematical modeling of process tanks has been dominated by one-dimensional and empirically derived “black box” techniques. This approach has until recently been justified by the intractability of the full equations of motion in these domains. Modern methods of computational fluid mechanics, however, offer the promise of obtaining underlying velocity fields with accuracy sufficient for the purposes of multidimensional transport models. This opens the prospect for calculation of spatial variations of particles, reactants, and products within a process tank. This would permit a realistic prediction of the influence of tank geometry on process performance. Basic approaches to transport modeling of process tanks are reviewed and applications to modeling of the activated sludge process are presented. It is proposed that multi-dimensional transport modeling, when coupled with full-scale and physical test work, can be used to conclusively determine geometric factors which determine tank performance.

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