The in vivo fluorescence of chlorophyll a was measured in samples of natural phytoplankton taken from the Římov Reservoir (Czech Republic) during the years 1987 and 1988. The fluorescence intensities of samples either with or without addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (diuron, DCMU) were found reliable for calculating the concentration of chlorophyll a during periods when cyanobacteria were not abundant. The correction for background non-chlorophyll fluorescence appeared to be essential. No distinct correlation between a DCMU-induced increase of the fluorescence and primary production of phytoplankton was found.